Even if we grant him a direct causal relationship between “the qasidas of Onsori and Rudaki and Farrokhi” and “the demise of the Samanids and the Ghaznavids,” are we then to accept the implication that these dynasties provided occasions of pride for Iranians? Lotman returns to this crucial moment in the closing section of The Structure of the Artistic Text, stating the problem in terms of an increasingly evident social debate: O you stupid prattlers! From the perspective of those who had been exposed to European poetic cultures, however, poets like Qa’ani appeared as the perpetuators of a poetic tradition incapable of expressing their concerns and preoccupations. The poem’s theme then is “very disgusting [makruh] and utterly unacceptable [mardud].
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Without an exception, the poets and literati of mid-nineteenth-century Iran believed that a return to the fountainheads of poetry would rejuvenate it by returning to the actual practice the potential to express issues of contemporary concern.
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Let me add that in this context extrasystem and extrasystemic do not necessarily mean foreign, external, or nonnative. Akhundzadeh, Kermani, and Malkom represent a community of reformists who began to express their views about the contemporary practice of poetry and about the tradition which it claimed to be continuing via enhancing. A Rhetoric of Subversion 23 2.
Viewed in terms of the aspirations of the Return Movement, his works signaled, in the simplicity of their diction and clarity of their expressive devices, a strong desire to effect change in the “language” of the Persian literature of the recent past.
An early convert to Babism, Kermani wrote several important historical works and was once a member of a literary circle in Isfahan where, according to one observer, “new and progressive ideas” were discussed. It begins in response to ever-changing social conditions, and continues in various ways until the opposite perception becomes current: In that sense, this chapter brings together some of the major concepts developed by the two theorists on whom I have drawn so extensively.
The emergence of the power of memory as the seminal quality of a poetic temperament can itself be taken as a sign of the hold that inherited poetic structures can exercise on the individual mind. Here, too, he puts the protest in the mouth of the Englishman: First, literature as it was practiced in his time reflected little of its surroundings because it was conceived and executed under the weight of a logic and grammar of creativity that was defunct.
Cultural insularity has not allowed any outside interference in the workings of the poetic tradition. I also adopt Lotman’s views in my analysis of the process of stereotyping which allowed the Iranian reformers of the nineteenth century to sabotage the Persian poetic tradition which they meant to change. In addition, regardless of the truth or falsehood of the theological position espoused in the poem, “such arguments possess no novelty [torfegi] and freshness [tazegi]”.
To them, the new poetry was a highly visible sign of cultural capitulation because it violated the “spirit” of the Persian language and Iranian culture. Institutionally, a University of Washington Graduate School Summer Research Grant in first afforded me the opportunity to begin the explorations that have since evolved into this work.
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barna Ideas must be expressed in such a way as to allow a piece of writing to preserve its good compositional attributes [mohassenat-e ensha], whatever the language into which it is translated.
The views expressed by Nima’s followers have in time moderated, and studies like Yahya Arianpur’s Az Dagya ta Nima From Saba to Nima have begun to change the narrative of Iranian literary modernity in perceptible ways. If a text does not sustain the memory of traditional construction, its innovativeness will no longer be perceived. Second, within the specific barann of this project, the approach may make it possible for future scholars to classify various esthetic products within a constantly evolving culture-system.
Eventually the narrator gives vent to his pent-up feelings through a surrogate character, described as “a foulmouthed youth” javan-e harzeh-dara.
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As one exposed at a young age to the celebratory discourse surrounding she’r-e now, I have always found that poetic tradition bafan satisfying and socially significant. More significantly, I try to address those elements or structures likeliest to change the reader, the poet, or the cultural environment that have brought them to mutual baean. A similar conviction motivates me in chapter 6, where I show the emergence, finally, of an interpretive community essential to the transformation of new coherences into an esthetic tradition.
It is possible to honor Avicenna while accepting the fact that the theory biw the four humors has been superseded. Bent on refashioning every aspect of Iranian social life along European lines, the former adopted a discursive strategy which included assaults on those social institutions and practices which they perceived as obstacles on their path.
Now, the Return Movement poets’ practice of taqlid imitation tended to reject the immediate past as alien, employing instead styles associated with the earlier poetic schools, the so- called Khorasani and Eraqi.
Like those practices, poetry as it exists is related to superstition, an association which is reiterated toward the end of the young man’s protest. The specific textual manifestations of this move may consist of a variety of alternative modeling activities, ranging from wholesale adaptations of formal, generic, or thematic features associated with an alternative esthetic system to perceptive moves away from poeticity toward the prosaic in the native esthetic system.
At a time when literature was thought to play a crucial part in the national culture the practice of Iranian poets provided eloquent testimony to the depravity of the entire literary canon. That is why he holds Ferdowsi up as the only poet whose work, The Shahnameh, can serve as an example to contemporary poets of Iran. Consequently, it began to work toward changing Iranian society’s poetic imaginary, now by criticizing this or that poet, now by setting contemporary poetry against the inherited tradition, at times even by rejecting the entire tradition, offering in its place an alternative poetic system which it described as actually existing in Europe.
Since I intend to focus on a few important stages in this complex cultural process, my aim is to describe certain basic characteristics of each stage in a series of poetic texts and the discourses surrounding them. What do you understand from such delirious nonsense, and why do you persist so in squandering baraan own time only to arouse disgust in other people’s minds?
Whole periods, certain thematic strains, or at least individual poets, are judged as deserving of a positive view on some grounds. Modernity in Iran author: First, he accuses them of slavishly following in their footsteps without questioning the efficacy of their imitation: